What is BlockChain and How it Works

by Akbar Jaffer
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what is blockchain and how it works

Blockchain technology has taken the world by storm in recent years, with its potential to revolutionize a wide range of industries and applications. It aim is to fundamentally address the “trust” issue or “trust in business transactions” issue.  How well it will do it, that remains to be seen. But first, let’s explore what exactly is blockchain, and how does it work? In this article, I will provide a high-level overview of blockchain technology and its key features.

What is Blockchain?

At its core, a blockchain is a decentralized, distributed ledger that records transactions on multiple computers. It is a digital record-keeping system that allows multiple parties to reach consensus on a single version of a shared digital history.

Each transaction on a blockchain is secured using cryptography, which ensures that it cannot be altered or deleted once it has been added to the chain. The transactions are organized into blocks, which are then linked together in a chronological chain, hence the name “blockchain.”

One of the key benefits of blockchain technology is that it allows for a high degree of transparency and security. Because the ledger is decentralized and distributed among multiple parties, there is no central point of control. This makes it difficult for a single entity to manipulate the ledger or for transactions to be altered without the consensus of the network (all copies of the ledger). In other words, to alter a ledger enter, one must first know how many copies of that ledger are out there and where they are.

How Does Blockchain Work?

Now that we have a basic understanding of what a blockchain is, let’s take a closer look at how it works.

  1. A transaction is initiated. This could be anything from a financial transaction to a record of an asset being transferred.
  2. The transaction is verified. In order to be added to the blockchain, the transaction must be verified by network participants known as “miners.” Miners use complex algorithms to solve a mathematical problem and verify the transaction.
  3. Once a transaction has been verified, it is added to a block along with other verified transactions.
  4. The block is then added to the existing blockchain, creating a permanent record of the transaction.

Key Features of Blockchain Technology

There are several key features that make blockchain technology unique:

  • Decentralization: One of the key benefits of blockchain is its decentralized nature. Because it is not controlled by a single entity, it is more secure and transparent by eliminating the single point of failure.
  • Immutability: Once a transaction has been added to the blockchain, it cannot be altered or deleted. But you can add an addendum to a contract. In BlockChain speak it means adding a new block (with alterations to the original information) connected/linked to the previous block. This ensures the integrity and security of the transaction.
  • Transparency: All transactions on a blockchain are visible to the entire network, which allows for a high degree of transparency.
  • Consensus: In order for a transaction to be added to the blockchain, it must be verified by the network through a process known as consensus. This ensures that all parties agree on the validity of the transaction.

Applications of Blockchain Technology

Blockchain technology has the potential to disrupt a wide range of industries, including finance, healthcare, supply chain management, and more. Some examples of how blockchain is being used today include:

  • Cryptocurrencies: Perhaps the most well-known application of blockchain technology is in the creation of cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. These digital currencies use blockchain to securely record and verify financial transactions.
  • Supply chain management: Blockchain can be used to track the movement of goods through the supply chain, providing greater transparency and accountability.
  • Identity verification: Blockchain can be used to securely verify and store personal identification information, such as passport and driver’s license data. It can also be used to track who has access to your personal information.
  • Smart Contracts: Blockchain is used to track chain of custody of legal documents as they are routed from one signatory to another.


In summary, blockchain is a decentralized, distributed ledger technology that allows multiple parties to reach consensus on a single version of a shared digital history. It is secure, transparent, and it helps ensure the integrity and sanctity of critical transactions.

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